Glossary of Technical Terms
Book Design, Layout, Printing, and Binding
© 2008 12/14
|Page||A book is made up of leaves of paper. One side of one leaf is a page.|
|Page Proof||See proof.|
|Pagination||The system or organization of pages, which often involves page numbering.|
|Paper||General considerations for book
or printing papers:
When setting type, there are two kinds of paragraphs: a plain paragraph has the first line indented and the other lines are flush; a hanging paragraph has a full, first line, and all the other lines are indented. A third type of paragraph, a block paragraph, has no indentation, but a line space separates it from the preceding and succeeding paragraphs, common in business letters.
See front matter.
A system for marking copy or proofs to show corrections. See Proofreader's Marks PDF.
An initial that is set in a large size, sticking up beyond the first line of type. Used for the first sentence of a book or chapter. See dropped cap.
Also camera raw. In digital photography it is the native format of a digital photograph, e.g. a Canon raw photograph is a different format from Nikon. For most photo editing software the raw files have to be converted into more standard formats (jpeg, tiff, etc.). Raw affords the photographer the best control over image quality if he makes the conversion rather than the camera’s processor.
500 sheets of paper. See basis weight.
See end matter.
To print an impression on a sheet in correct relationship to other impressions: for example, full color lithographic prints, printing in 4 colors, CMYK, each impression must be in register. When the impressions are not aligned, the work is said to be out of register. Registration is not so much a concern with inkjet: the registration of colors is adjusted on the print heads.
Also repro. The final proof with all the corrections. In photo-mechanical art, camera ready. A repro grade photograph is a photographic print suitable for its intended use; repro grade prints are made to size, with dodging and burning, usually with subtle differences in cast, letting the customer select the best settings.
Regular type as opposed to italic. See Type PDF.
Type designed to resemble handwriting. See cursive.
In graphic arts and printing, commonly a company that converts digital files to film or film to digital files. See imagesetter.
Heavy papers, folded and gathered for saddle stitching will creep or push out: if all pages were trimmed prior to gathering, the inside pages would have smaller outside margins. Shingling anticipates this by making sure the paper is big enough, and in extreme instances the gutter is adjusted to permit even alignment.
|Silhouette||The entire background of a halftone is removed. Extracted.|
|Slipcase||A protective box for a book or set of books, with one open side so that when the book is shelved the spine is visible.|
See control color. Commonly a color generated by a non-standard offset ink. For example, a company’s logo may be made using a spot color so that it doesn’t vary from printer to printer.
Print varnish, or press varnish, is the application of varnish to a page. Because it is applied with a plate, where it is applied is controlled--hense spot varnish. It is does for protective purposes; e.g. solid black inks show finger prints, which a varnish coat prevents. An extra clear varnish, called water coat, is often applied to images to make them appear more glossy. Sometime the varnish coat can be tinted to warm or cool an image.
|Staging line||A line created when using a frisket or mask when removing or adding color.|
|Staining||The coloring of the edges of a book for decoration.|
|Stochastic dot||A random or random-like dot in inkjet or laserjet printers, giving the appearance of continuous tone.|
|Stock||Generally, the paper being printed on.|
|Stub column||The left-hand column of a table.|
|Stub of a table||Guiding entries in the left-hand column of a table.|
|Style||Rules covering punctuation, capitalization, word division, spelling. House style is the set of such rules by a publisher.|
|Subscript||A small numeral, letter, etc. that prints partly below the base line.|
|Substance||See basis weight.|
|Superior figure||A small numeral that prints above the x-height; see superscript.|
|Superscript||A small numeral, letter, fraction, that prints above the x-height.|
|Swash letters||Ornamental variations of a type face, in caps used chiefly for initials.|
|Tablet||A mouse like device used in graphics programs. It is a pen and a tablet that enable the user to draw.|
|Tabulation||Listing or charting items in a table.|
|Template||A pre-made layout.|
|Terminal Letters||A swash design on the tail of letters: a flourish.|
|Text Block||The body of the book. In book making, it is all the leaves making up the book to be bound, therefore excluding the cover--board papers, end papers, etc. In printing based on digital files, the file containing all the pages of the book; the cover being a separate file.|
|Text book||A book or edition of a book intended for sales and use in schools and college.|
|Text Frame||In digital typesetting, a frame that is drawn and positioned in which type is placed.|
|Text Type||Type of the text, normally 14 points or smaller|
|Three-quarter Binding||A three-quarter bound book has a leather covered spine and the corners of the covers. Today these may be materials other than leather that are somehow different from the rest of the cover. See half and full binding.|
|Thumbnails||Small images, as in a contact sheet, standing in for larger images.|
|Tiff||Tagged Image File Format: A digital image file storage format. It can be use lossless compression.|
|Tip-in||A separately printed leaf that is glued or tipped in. See wraparound.|
|Title page||Nominally the third page of a book, with the title, author and publisher’s names in display type.|
|Tool||To alter the surface of printing plate with an engraver’s tool.|
|Tracking||In digital type setting, letter-spacing. See Type PDF.|
|Trade book||Books or editions for sale through bookstores to the general public.|
|Transitional||Type design that combine features of both Old Style and Modern; eg. Baskerville. See Type PDF.|
|Transparency||Art, type, etc., on film through with light is shown to see the image. Transparencies can be positive (slide film) or negative (color or B&W film)|
|Trapping||A prepress technique of creating a slight overlap of one color over another to correct or prevent registration problems.|
|Trim size||The outside dimension of a page after it has been printed and trimmed.|
|Tritone||A three-color reproduction of a black-and-white image. See Color PDF.|
|True Type||An outline or vector type, originally developed by Apple Computer. Microsoft added True Type to Window in 1991.|
|Type sizes||See Type PDF.|
|Type styles||See Type PDF.|
|Typographical Error||An error made by the typesetter; commonly “typo.” It is a printer’s error.|
|Variables||Any typographic element that can be specified: typeface, type size, type body, measure, and paragraph indent.|
|Vector graphics||Uses points, lines, and curves—based on mathematical equations, the size of which is impendent of the final image size—to represent images in computer graphics. TrueType type is vector graphics. The size of a vector file is independent of the size of the image.|
|Verso||The back side or page of a leaf. The even numbered pages.|
|Vertical Scale||In computer typesetting, adjusting the vertical proportion of type—to compress or expand.|
|Weight||Variations of letterform such as light bold, etc.|
|Widows||A widow is a short line ending a paragraph at the top of a page. In careful typesetting, widows are to be avoided: usually done by letter and word spacing to either remove the widow or to add a line. Sometimes correcting a widow requires adjusting paragraphs several pages before, or shortening a spread by one or two lines. An orphan is the opening sentence of a paragraph at the bottom of a page. Orphans are more acceptable. Low cost typesetting often changes the type size of a paragraph or sentence to quickly eliminate widows.|
|Width||Variations in letterform, such as light bold, etc.|
|Woodcut||A form of relief printing done with "carved" wood as the image carrier. The negative (non-inked) portions of the image are cut away, leaving the image in relief.|
|Word division||Also hyphenation. Dividing words at the end of a line.|
|Word spacing||The justifying space between words to fill a given measure—the maximum text length for a specific job.|
|Work-and-Turn||A way of laying out the pages (imposition) so that a sheet is printed on one side, turned end for end and printed on the other side, giving two copies of the same pages when cut in half.|
|Wraparound||A separately printed sheet slipped around the outside of a signature before sewing, to add illustrations to a book without having to tip in single leaves.|
|Wrong font||Usually a printer’s error, where the wrong font is used.|
|X-height||The height of the body of a lowercase letter. X being the best example because all terminals touch the baseline and the line drawn across top of the “x” See Type PDF.|